In addition important in determining the behavior -- your character or the siltation in which you will be in (the environment)? Will you be a " nice" person? If you said yes, will you be always good? The answer, should you be being genuine, is no. The question then can be, if you are a " nice" person (and therefore that is a part of your personality), why not necessarily you wonderful all the time; how will you be just about every not always be nice if perhaps that is the personality? According to character theorists, your personality is usually enduring as well as the determining take into account human tendencies. But , whenever you will see in the Social Psychology section (later in the semester), this may not be precisely the case. For now, let's look into what Personality is in accordance to Personality theorists. PersonalityВ can be defined as an individuals one of a kind, relatively regular pattern of thoughts, emotions, and manners. I. The Psychobiological approachВ (the perspective that personality is dependent upon biological factors). temperament -- a person's characteristic emotional condition, first apparent in early childhood and possibly inborn. В
A. Hippocrates' viewВ -- According to Hippocrates, nature is determined by someone’s level of 4 different body fluids, calledВ humors. 1) Blood was connected with a happy, orВ sanguineВ temperament. 2) Phlegm assoc. with a calm, orВ phlegmaticВ temperament.
3) Black fiel was associated with a despondent, orВ melancholicВ temperament. 4) Yellow bile was assoc. w/ an irritable, orВ cholericВ temperament.
B. Phrenology and Physiognomy
1) Phrenology -- the study of bumps on the skull (believed in the 19th century to become associated with particular personality and intellectual characteristics). 2) Physiognomy -- the study of the face (based on the opinion that persona was exposed by facial features. C. Physique and PersonalityВ -- Somatotypes (body types) --В Constitutional theory of personalityВ -- William Sheldon. According to the view, there exists al ink between a person's body type and personality. 1) ectomorphВ -- thin, frail human body; believed by Sheldon to reveal a shy, restrained, and introspective personality calledВ cerebrotonia. 2) mesomorphВ --В muscular, good body; considered to display a bold, assertive, and lively temperament calledВ somatotonia. 3) endomorphВ -- large, smooth body; believed to display a relaxed, societal and easygoing temperament calledВ viscerotonia. В
D. Heredity and Personality
Behavioral GeneticsВ -- the study of the relationship between heredity and behavior. 1) support just for this perspective is demonstrated by the differences present in infants. In which early age, persona theorists say that the baby has not had a chance to learn how to respond, but can be behaving relating to their innate personalities. 2) Bouchard research of similar twins reared apart. These kinds of studies show that identical twins who also grow up in different homes often demonstrate many similar behaviors and characteristics.
2. The Psychoanalytic ApproachВ (rooted inside the psychobiological approach) - this theory is extremely popular, and was developed simply by Freud. A. Psychosexual Theory of the Composition of Personality
1) IdВ (Latin for " it" ) -- is made up of innate neurological drives, tries immediate gratification, and functions by the pleasure principle (seeking gratification of impulses). 2) EgoВ (Latin for " I" ) -- helps the consumer adapt to external reality by making compromises between the id, the superego, plus the environment. Functions by the " reality principle" -- guides the individual expressing sexual and aggressive impulses in socially acceptable methods. 3) SuperegoВ (Latin for " over the I" ) -- acts as our moral guidebook; contains theВ conscience, which makes all of us feel responsible for carrying out or considering something wrong; as well contains theВ ego ideal, В which makes all of us feel good to get wanting or perhaps doing something good. 4) Defense MechanismsВ -- distort truth to protect the ego by anxiety brought on by id urges. There are many different types of immunity process: a) repressionВ -- this...