Effects of Sexuality, Education, and Age Upon Leaders’ Usage of Influence Strategies and Full Range Leadership Behaviors Essay

FIRST ARTICLE

Effects of Gender, Education, and Age upon Leaders' Use

of Influence Strategies and Full-range Leadership Behaviors

John Elizabeth. Barbuto Junior & Susan M. Fritz & Gina S. Matkin &

David B. Marx

Published on-line: 5 January 2007

# Springer Science + Organization Media, LLC 2007

Subjective Relationships of gender, era, and education to

command styles and leaders' affect tactics had been

examined with 56 leaders and 234 followers by a variety

of organizations. Command behaviors had been measured with

the Multi-factor Leadership Set of questions (MLQ—rater

version). Influence strategies were tested with Yukl's

Influence Patterns Questionnaire (IBQ). Multivariate

Evaluation of Difference (MANOVA) utilized to test

behavioral differences related to leaders' sexuality, age, and education groupings, as well as the connection of age and

education with gender. Benefits show that gender made a

tiny direct impact on leadership manners. The conversation of male or female and education produced constant differences in

command behaviors. Significance for upcoming research will be

provided, and a demand re-analysis of previously released work is advised.

Keywords Sexuality. Influence strategies. Leadership

For every study that has shown variations in leadership

behaviors based on gender (e. g., Carless, 1998; Druskat,

year 1994; Helgeson, 1990; Rosener, 1990; Thacker, 1995),

another has demonstrated no differences at all (e. g., Bartol &

Martin, 1986; Bass & Stogdill, 1990; Nieva & Gutek, 1981;

truck Engen, van der Leeden, & Willemsen, 2001). Several

researchers (e. g., Eagly, Johannesen-Schmidt, & van

Engen, 2003; Leithwood & Jantzi, 1997; Lewis, 1998;

Thacker, 1995) possess called for add-on of contextual

variables and use of more complex research styles to test

the effect of gender on command behavior. We have

answered this kind of call simply by testing the interaction associated with age and educational level of leaders as a possible reason

for some from the mixed results over the past 30 years in

sexuality and management research.

Demographic variables such as gender, age group, and educational

level have been utilized to predict many behaviors,

including effectiveness (Eagly, Karau, & Makhijani, 1995;

Thompson, 2000), communication style (Kirtley & Weaver,

1999), decision making (Ganzel, 1999; Radecki & Jaccard,

1996), productivity (Kovar & Overdorf, 95; Wilson &

Hossain, 1999), participation (Itzhaky & York, 2000;

O'Connor, 1996; Williamson, 2000), discord style (Chusmir & Mills, 1989; Duane, 1989; L. S. Sorenson, Hawkins, &

R. T. Sorenson, 1995), success (Blank & Levesque, 1993;

Chusmir & Parker, 1992; Sutherland, 1999), and power

(Jenkins, 2000; Lips, 2000). Although a great deal of

research has concerned the partnership between leadership

and male or female, few analysts have looked into the relationship

among leadership and age, and fewer still the relationship among leadership and academic level. In our

study, we all examined all variables as predictors of Full Range Command and influence tactics.

The total Range Command model, operationalized by

Largemouth bass (1985), includes laissez-faire (lack of leadership), transactional, and transformational management behaviors.

Transactional leadership can be characterized because management simply by

exception (corrective actions) and contingent advantages

(tangible exchanges). Transformational management is characterized as idealized influence (symbol of the vision),

individualized account (strong one on one relationship, developmental growth), perceptive stimulation (encouragement of new thinking patterns), and inspirational

Sexual Roles (2007) 56: 71–83

DOI 12. 1007/s11199-006-9152-6

G. S. Matkin (*)

Division of Agricultural Leadership Education

and Connection, University of Nebraska—Lincoln,

300 Ag Lounge, P. O. Box 830709, Lincoln, NENNI 68588-0709, USA

e-mail: [email protected] unl. edu

J. At the. Barbuto Jr: S. M. Fritz: G. S. Matkin: D. N. Marx

University or college of Nebraska—Lincoln,...



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